Microfabrication by multi-photon polymerization is a direct laser-write technique which allows 3D structuring of photopolymers at the micro- and nano-scale. This can be achieved through combination of various nonlinear effects, careful consideration of laser radiation parameters and precise focusing conditions. For this reason 3D laser lithography was used for creation of functional devices in fields of nanophotonics, microoptics, microfluidics, micromechanics, tissue engineering and much more. It is important to note, that there is huge variety of materials that can be processed by applying 3D laser lithography, including hybrid organic‑inorganic photopolymers, biodegradable polymers, elastomers, proteins and so on.
3D Chain-Mail Structure
Standard 3D printing does not enables printing of movable structures. These structures can be fabricated inside a gel or liquid monomer by using the multiphoton polymerization technique which makes support‑free 3D printing possible.
3D Gyroid Structure
Multi-photon polymerization is a suitable technology for meta-material fabrication. Metamaterials are composites whose physical properties are different from those of the materials they are made from.
Microoptics is one of the applications for multi‑photon polymerization (MPP) technology. The illustrated lens has a diameter of 500 µm. Superb nearly spherical aberration-free focusing can be obtained in each Fresnel zone.
3D Structures on Fiber Tip
The microlens with a diameter of 50 µm is fabricated on top of the fiber. The 3D supports ensure a required 250 µm distance between the fiber tip and the lens.
Scaffold-like structure can be produced within a resolution of up to 150 nm capable of entrapping submicrometer sized cells by multiphoton polymerization (MPP) technique.
The multiphoton polymerization technique enables the production of arbitrary shaped 3D structures from various polymers. The single linewidth of the woodpile photonic crystal shown in the illustration is lower than 200 nm.
Prism for Elipsometry
Multiphoton polymerization is a flexible technique that allows different quality and various functionality surfaces to be maintained on the same structures depending on the needs of the application.
3D laser lithography is a suitable technology for the production of high-precision micromechanical components, an example being the single-helix three-turn 3D meso-spring for micro-mechanical applications.
One of the best ways to produce them is the multi-photon polymerization technique which enables the production of precise and firm microneedles. Even more complex shapes of polymeric needles can be obtained by maintaining the high sharpness of the needle tips.
Femtosecond microfabrication in micromechanics applications uses techniques like multiphoton polymerization and selective laser etching to produce flexible and high-precision 3D structures. These structures, made of materials like polymers and ceramics, can be used in various fields like micromechanics and microrobotics and are ideal for applications that require movable assembly-free components.
Multi-photon polymerization (MPP) can be used for meta-material fabrication, including scaffolds for tissue engineering. The 3D gyroid structure is a mechanically rigid, light structure that can be fabricated by MPP, with a resolution up to 150 nm and capable of entrapping submicrometer sized cells.
Femtosecond microfabrication technology is used in micro-optics applications, including multi-photon polymerization (MPP) and 3D laser lithography. MPP enables the production of polymeric structures with high resolution, such as Fresnel lenses and photonic crystals.
Multi-photon polymerization (MPP) enables the production of precise and strong microlenses and microneedles for visualization, filtering, and drug delivery. MPP can also be combined with other fabrication techniques such as selective laser etching to create hybrid microfabricated systems, like glass and polymer structures.
Femtosecond microfabrication technology is applied in microfluidics through 3D laser lithography and selective laser etching (SLE). 3D laser lithography is used to produce micro filters and sensors, while SLE enables the production of complex-shaped microfluidic channels out of fused silica glass with low surface roughness and high precision.
Multiphoton-polymerization (MPP) is a technology that enables the production of arbitrary shape polymeric structures within submicrometric resolution. First, a photoresist sample is prepared by drop-casting polymer material mixed with a photoinitiator on the glass slide and then pre-baking.
A feasibility study is composed of several steps, including researching methods for fabricating micro-structures, fabricating a micro-structure prototype, measuring and aligning the prototype with technical requirements, and finally preparing a study report.