Laser Nanofactory Multi-Photon Polimerization
- Nanometer resolution additive manufacturing technique
- True 3D structures in micrometer scale
- Various polymers available
- Stitching error-free manufacturing
Multiphoton-polymerization (MPP) is a technology that enables the production of arbitrary shape polymeric structures within submicrometric resolution. First, a photoresist sample is prepared by drop-casting polymer material mixed with a photoinitiator on the glass slide and then pre-baking. Afterward, the 3D microstructure is fabricated using a direct laser writing technique. Consequently, the polymer hardens in places of drop where it is affected by laser radiation due to a process called photopolymerization. Finally, the microstructure is immersed in an organic solvent to develop an unpolymerized photoresist.
MPP is often used in the manufacturing of microelectronic devices, as it allows for the creation of very small and detailed structures with high levels of precision. Additionally, because the light is highly focused, it can be used to create complex 3D shapes.
|Materials||SZ2080, SU-8, Ormocers, Glassomer, hybrid organic-inorganic photopolymers, elastomers, proteins|
|Minimum XY feature size||150 nm|
|Minimum surface roughness Ra||≤ 20 nm|
|Maximum fabrication speed||30 mm/s|
|Wavelength||780 nm||1030 ± 10 nm
515 ± 10 nm
|Repetition rate||100 MHz||11 MHz … 76 MHz||Single-shot – 1 MHz|
|Pulse duration||< 100 fs||50 fs
|290 fs – 20 ps (tunable)|
|Max. average power||250 mW||2 W||5 W|
|Long-term power stability||< 0.5% RMS over 24 h||< 0.5% RMS over 100 h|
|XYZ positioning stages mounted on granite base with bridge||Travel (XYZ) 1)||160 mm × 160 mm × 60 mm|
|Accuracy (XYZ)||± 300 nm|
|Resolution (XYZ)||1 nm|
|Maximum speed (XY)||200 mm/s|
|Galvano scanners||Accuracy||50 μrad|
|Repeatability||0.4 µrad RMS|
|Monitoring on time||The fabrication process is monitored by an integrated machine vision system|
|Stitching||Stitchless fabrication using Infinite Field of View (IFoV)|
|Focusing optics||Objectives – from 0.4 to 1.4 NA 1)|
|Autofocus system||Automatic glass/polymer or glass/air interface optical detection|
|Self-Align-System (SAS)||Automatic laser beam path alignment system|
|Substrate||Universal vacuum sample holder with computer-controlled, position synchronized illumination for transparent samples|
|Beam delivery & control||Motorized attenuator, polarization rotator, beam expander. Integrated power meter enables real-time power monitoring|
|Software||Convenient control of all necessary process parameters and machine settings. The software handles standard formats of 3D designs created by popular CAD programs, like STL|
|Laser safety||Ergonomic housing to ensure laser safety class 1 and environment stability conditions for laser microfabrication process|
|Dimensions when all doors are closed (W × L × H)||1790 mm × 920 mm × 2270 mm|
|Dimensions when doors are opened (W × L × H)||2680 mm × 1900 mm × 2300 mm|
|Weight||~ 700 kg|
|Operating temperature 1)||20 ± 2 °C|
|Relative humidity 1)||≤ 60%|
|Electrical requirements||110 V AC, 20 A – 230 V AC , 10 A|
|AC power (normal operation)||typical 2 kW|
- The conditions of the environment are preferred to be as stable as possible.
The multiphoton polymerization technique enables the production of arbitrary shaped 3D structures from various polymers. The single linewidth of the woodpile photonic crystal shown in the illustration is lower than 200 nm.
3D Chain-Mail Structure
Standard 3D printing does not enables printing of movable structures. These structures can be fabricated inside a gel or liquid monomer by using the multiphoton polymerization technique which makes support‑free 3D printing possible.
3D Gyroid Structure
Multi-photon polymerization is a suitable technology for meta-material fabrication. Metamaterials are composites whose physical properties are different from those of the materials they are made from.
Microoptics is one of the applications for multi‑photon polymerization (MPP) technology. The illustrated lens has a diameter of 500 µm. Superb nearly spherical aberration-free focusing can be obtained in each Fresnel zone.
3D Structures on Fiber Tip
The microlens with a diameter of 50 µm is fabricated on top of the fiber. The 3D supports ensure a required 250 µm distance between the fiber tip and the lens.
Scaffold-like structure can be produced within a resolution of up to 150 nm capable of entrapping submicrometer sized cells by multiphoton polymerization (MPP) technique.
The multiphoton polymerization technique with hybrid polymers in combination with pyrolysis enables the removal of the organic part of the polymer and produces ceramic structures. Structure shrinkage during pyrolysis is homogeneous and is approximately 25 %.
Prism for Elipsometry
Multiphoton polymerization is a flexible technique that allows different quality and various functionality surfaces to be maintained on the same structures depending on the needs of the application.
3D laser lithography is a suitable technology for the production of high-precision micromechanical components, an example being the single-helix three-turn 3D meso-spring for micro-mechanical applications.