The use of 3D femtosecond laser printing in the medical industry is a relatively new and emerging field that involves the use of 3D printing technology to create highly detailed and complex medical devices and implants using femtosecond lasers. This technology is being used to create a wide range of medical devices and implants, such as prosthetics, surgical instruments, and implants for drug delivery, that are tailored to the specific needs of individual patients. The use of femtosecond lasers allows for the creation of highly precise and intricate structures, which can improve the performance of medical devices and implants. Additionally, 3D femtosecond laser printing can be used to produce large quantities of medical devices and implants quickly and efficiently, making it a valuable tool for medical researchers and manufacturers.
One of the best ways to produce them is the multi-photon polymerization technique which enables the production of precise and firm microneedles. Even more complex shapes of polymeric needles can be obtained by maintaining the high sharpness of the needle tips.
The nozzle size can reach a few centimeters while the smallest channel may have a diameter of only a few micrometers. The nozzle could be used to deliver high-pressure gases and liquids to variable diameter outputs.
Tesla valve microfluidic channels can be fabricated inside the volume of glass. This microchannel design allows the liquid to flow in only one direction.
Micro Channels Formation
The SLE technique makes it possible to produce taper-free micron precision channels with a low surface roughness of ~200 nm RMS.
The hybrid-fabrication approach enables rapid production of channels out of fused silica via laser ablation, while multiphoton polymerization is used to integrate fine-mesh 3D filters of arbitrary geometry inside the channel.
By selective laser etching (SLE), glass microstructures can be made and polymeric structures can be integrated into the glass microstructures using multiphoton polymerization (MPP).
The channels in the glass along with polymeric micropillars form a microfluidic device where different types of inserted cells can form a complex cellular architecture and manipulate cell‑to-cell interactions.
A hydrophobic surface formed on a copper alloy sample using femtosecond laser texturing. The contact angle between this surface and a water drop is 150 degrees, which means that the surface has the potential for self-cleaning, anti-icing and other properties linked to hydrophobicity.
Hydrophilic surface properties created through metal surface micro-texturing. A sponge like aluminum surface soaks up water and spreads it evenly across the surface.
Laser Surface Texturing
The femtosecond laser produces an oxidation formation on a titanium alloy surface. Varying colors can be achieved by creating oxide layers of different thicknesses.
Femtosecond laser marking allows precise coloring of titanium alloy surfaces to achieve varying colors. The technique is used in cosmetic, industrial, and automotive applications such as jewelry, medical devices, and tool marking. Similar effects can be achieved on other metals, like stainless steel, copper, silver, and gold.
Multi-photon polymerization (MPP) can be used for meta-material fabrication, including scaffolds for tissue engineering. The 3D gyroid structure is a mechanically rigid, light structure that can be fabricated by MPP, with a resolution up to 150 nm and capable of entrapping submicrometer sized cells.
Femtosecond microfabrication technology is applied in microfluidics through 3D laser lithography and selective laser etching (SLE). 3D laser lithography is used to produce micro filters and sensors, while SLE enables the production of complex-shaped microfluidic channels out of fused silica glass with low surface roughness and high precision.
Multi-photon polymerization (MPP) enables the production of precise and strong microlenses and microneedles for visualization, filtering, and drug delivery. MPP can also be combined with other fabrication techniques such as selective laser etching to create hybrid microfabricated systems, like glass and polymer structures.
Femtosecond microfabrication is a hybrid approach that combines laser ablation and multi-photon polymerization for lab-on-chip applications. This enables the rapid production of channels and filters in arbitrary geometries for devices such as a microfluidic macromolecule separator and a liver-on-chip model.
Microfabrication by multi-photon polymerization is a direct laser-write technique which allows 3D structuring of photopolymers at the micro- and nano-scale.
Selective Laser Etching
Selective laser etching (SLE) is a subtractive laser technology allowing fabrication of complex-shape 3D glass parts with micrometer precision.
Femtosecond direct laser writing processes enable hybrid microfabrication of additive and subtractive technologies to create integrated systems.
Multiphoton-polymerization (MPP) is a technology that enables the production of arbitrary shape polymeric structures within submicrometric resolution. First, a photoresist sample is prepared by drop-casting polymer material mixed with a photoinitiator on the glass slide and then pre-baking.
Laser Nanofactory workstation allows hybrid fabrication, meaning that various processes are supported by the same equipment. The two of our most frequently used processes are multiphoton polymerization and selective glass etching, however that is far from all!
A feasibility study is composed of several steps, including researching methods for fabricating micro-structures, fabricating a micro-structure prototype, measuring and aligning the prototype with technical requirements, and finally preparing a study report.